Best Citizenship by Investment Programs in 2024 — Passportivity

Second Citizenship
by Investment

Citizenship by Investment Programs offer a practical route for individuals seeking a second passport via substantial investment in a country's economy. Explore the options that can help you broaden travel options, open business opportunities, and elevate your lifestyle.


Minimum investment amount

3 months

Fastest obtaining period

Austria citizenship

2—3 years Application processing time
180+ Visa-free destinations, including Schengen, the UK, the US, and Canada
EU life Ability to live, study, work, conduct business, and access the healthcare system in Austria and any other EU country
Minimum investment amount is not stated

Jordan citizenship

$750,000+ Investment amount
3+ months Application processing time
50+ Visa-free destinations, including Hong Kong
Business expansion Opportunity to enter the Middle East market

North Macedonia citizenship

€200,000+ Investment amount
2+ months Application processing time
120+ Visa-free destinations, including Schengen, Japan and Hong Kong
Prospect of joining the EU North Macedonia is a recognised candidate for membership in the EU

Second citizenship benefits

  1. Increased Travel Freedom: A second passport can often grant you visa-free travel to countries that your original passport might not, allowing you to travel more freely and easily.
  2. Business Opportunities: Dual citizenship can open up access to new business markets, trade agreements, and economic policies.
  3. Tax Management: Some countries offer advantageous tax policies to attract foreign investors. Depending on your circumstances, a second citizenship could provide better tax management options.
  4. Safety and Security: A second passport can provide an insurance policy of sorts in times of political unrest, economic instability, or other crises in your home country.
  5. Education and Employment Opportunities: Dual citizenship can grant access to educational and employment opportunities in both countries.
  6. Access to Healthcare and Social Services: In many countries, citizens have access to free or low-cost healthcare and other social services.
  7. Estate Planning: Economic citizenship might provide more favourable conditions for estate planning.
  8. Cultural Experience: Gaining citizenship in another country can give you the opportunity to immerse yourself in a new culture, learn a new language, and create new experiences.
  9. Residential Rights: As a citizen, you will have the right to live, work, and buy property in your chosen country, and in some cases, other countries in a regional bloc such as the EU.
  10. Political Rights: Depending on the country, dual citizenship may give you the right to vote, run for office, and otherwise fully participate in political life.
Investment citizenship benefits

Which family members are allowed to participate


In some cases, same-sex marriages and civil partnerships are eligible


Usually financially dependent on the investor, unmarried and with no children of their own


Financially dependent on the investor and often must be above a certain age — 55 or 65


Some programs allow the investor’s minor or dependent siblings to qualify for citizenship

Second citizenship investment options

Real estate investment for second citizenship
Real estate investment for dual citizenship

Real Estate Investment

Many countries offer second-passport-by-investment programs that require the purchase of real estate. The property must be bought at or above a specified minimum value and must be kept for a certain number of years. After that, the investment can be returned.


Business Investment

This often requires the applicant to start a business in the country, create jobs, or invest in an existing local business.


Donation to National Fund or Government Bonds

Some countries require a non-refundable donation to a national development fund or investment in government bonds.


Investment in Infrastructure Projects

Certain programs may allow for investments in government-approved infrastructure or development projects, such as building hotels, resorts, or other tourist attractions.


Bank Deposit

A significant capital deposit in a local bank for a certain period is another option offered by some countries.


Stock Market Investments

Some countries might provide the option to invest in the country's stock market to a certain amount.

Requirements to obtain citizenship by investment

The applicant is usually required to make a significant financial investment in the country. The type and amount of investment required can vary greatly, but it typically involves investing in real estate, a business, or a government fund.

Applicants typically need to have a clean criminal record. Background checks and due diligence investigations are usually conducted to verify this.

The applicant often needs to prove that the investment funds were legally obtained. This may involve submitting financial records or other forms of documentation.

Some programs require a medical examination to ensure the applicant does not have any contagious diseases.

Some programs require the applicant to maintain residency in the country for a certain period before granting citizenship, while others do not.

In some cases, the applicant may be required to swear an oath of allegiance to the country.

Most programs require an application fee, which is usually non-refundable.

The applicant must not pose a risk to the country's national security or public order.

Many programs require the applicant to be over 18 to apply for citizenship, although most programs allow minors to be included in a parent's application.

Typically, the applicant should not have any visa denials from countries that have a visa-waiver agreement with the nation in which they are seeking citizenship.

  • Passport
  • Photographs
  • Birth Certificate
  • Marriage Certificate, if applicable
  • Children's Birth Certificates, if applicable
  • National Identity Card, if applicable
  • Proof of Residence
  • Medical Examination Report
  • Police Clearance Certificate
  • Proof of Source of Funds
  • Proof of Investment
  • Bank Reference Letters
  • Professional References
  • Education Certificates
  • Employment Records, if relevant
  • Business Ownership Documents, if relevant
  • Tax Returns

How to choose best citizenship program

Choosing the best Second Citizenship Program depends on your personal circumstances and needs. Here are several factors to consider when deciding on the best program for you:

Investment Amount

The required investment amount can vary significantly from one program to another. Consider whether you're willing and able to make a donation, invest in real estate, or make a different type of investment, and at what cost.

Travel Mobility

If travel freedom is a priority, consider the strength of the passport in terms of visa-free travel. Some passports offer visa-free access to a greater number of countries than others.

Residency Requirements

Some programs require you to spend a certain amount of time in the country before you can gain citizenship, while others do not. Check the residency requirements to ensure they align with your lifestyle and commitments.

Processing Time

Look at how long it takes to process the application and grant citizenship. The duration can vary greatly among different programs.

Family Inclusion

If you want to include family members in your application, consider which programs allow for this and the associated costs.

Tax Implications

Consider the tax system of the country. Some countries offer tax benefits to attract foreign investors. However, it's crucial to understand the tax implications before making any decisions.

Business Opportunities

If you're interested in business or investment opportunities, consider the economic stability, business environment, and market potential of the country.

Quality of Life

Consider the quality of life in the country, including safety, healthcare, education, and lifestyle.

Due Diligence Process

A rigorous due diligence process might be a good sign that the program is reputable and has stringent checks, but it also might mean more paperwork and longer processing times.

Frequently Asked Questions

Malta offers investors citizenship by naturalisation under the most attractive terms among all the EU countries. You can get a Malta passport for exceptional services by direct investment fast: after only 1 year of residence.
In Malta, investors can get citizenship by naturalisation for exceptional services by direct investment after one year of holding a residence permit. The minimum investment amount is €690,000.This is the fastest way to get an EU passport. Yet, investors undergo the strictest Due Diligence. In Turkey, investors can acquire economic citizenship in 6—8 months by investing at least $400,000.
Yes, it is possible for an individual to hold three or more citizenships. Yet, the ability to acquire multiple citizenships depends on the laws and regulations of the countries involved. Some countries allow dual or multiple citizenship, which means an individual can hold citizenship of multiple countries simultaneously. Other countries may restrict or limit dual citizenship, requiring individuals to renounce previous citizenships upon acquiring a new one.
Obtaining a second citizenship, often referred to as dual citizenship, can be accomplished through several methods depending on the laws of the specific country. These methods typically include birth within a country's territory (jus soli), having one or both parents who are citizens of the country (jus sanguinis), marriage to a citizen of the country (jus matrimonii), naturalisation (residing in a country for a certain period), and investment (citizenship by investment). The investment route can involve a significant financial contribution, such as purchasing real estate, making a donation to a national development fund, or investing in job creation. Each country has specific requirements, processes, and timelines for obtaining citizenship, so it's essential to research thoroughly and potentially seek advice from immigration professionals to understand what each path entails.
EU citizenship provides numerous benefits. Firstly, it grants the right to freely live, work, and study in any of the 27 member states of the European Union. This enables individuals to access a broader range of employment and educational opportunities within the EU. Additionally, EU citizens enjoy social and legal protections, including access to healthcare and social welfare.
The Caribbean nations typically offer some of the fastest citizenship-by-investment programs, with participation typically taking less than half a year.
Countries offering citizenship by investment in real estate are Turkey and the five Caribbean countries — St Kitts and Nevis, Dominica, Antigua and Barbuda, St Lucia, and Grenada. Turkey offers citizenship to those who buy real estate worth at least $400,000. Caribbean programs have real estate investment options with the threshold of $200,000.